We are all familiar with salt, particularly sodium chloride, or table salt. We regularly use it to season and preserve our food. However, not everyone is familiar with other types of salts and their uses, for example, in manufacturing products like fertilisers, dyes, and polyester fabrics. But salts also have a biological function.… Continue reading »
Proteins are biological macromolecules composed of amino acid chains. They have physiological and structural functions in the body, and exist in a wide variety of forms, such as enzymes, hormones, blood, antibodies, muscles, and skin. They also function as transporting molecules within and in between cells. Proteins are considered macronutrients, which are needed… Continue reading »
Both vitamins and amino acids are important nutrients in the human body, performing various crucial functions. Vitamins are considered micronutrients and mainly function as cofactors and coenzymes in different metabolic processes, such as regulating protein synthesis. Meanwhile, amino acids are the fundamental building blocks of proteins. For instance, vitamin B12 or cobalamin has… Continue reading »
Amino acids and proteins have an integral relationship. Amino acids are traditionally defined as the fundamental building blocks of proteins, forming peptide bonds to build various types of them. This linear structure is called the primary structure of proteins, and usually forms α-helices and β-structures as their secondary structures. In turn, they can… Continue reading »
Amino acids are organic or carbon-based compounds that have two functional groups: an amino group and a carboxylate group. The amino group is slightly basic, while the carboxylate group is acidic. See the illustration below for an example. The R group or side chain mainly determines the amino acid’s chemical and physical properties.… Continue reading »
Energy is derived from glucose when it’s converted into pyruvate through a series of complex chemical reactions known as aerobic cellular respiration. It’s a three-step process that includes glycolysis, Krebs cycle, and electron transport. Glucose is one of the simplest monosaccharide (or single) sugars. This is because it’s a fundamental unit of other… Continue reading »
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